Omega-3 EFAs: The Right Stuff
On May 16, 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sotto
voce allowed a petition to permit food manufacturers to make nutrient
content claims for omega-3s in food products to become law. This put
FDA’s imprimatur on a macronutrients report from the Institute
of Medicine (IOM, a subdivision of the National Academy of Sciences)
that determined omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) were not only essential
nutritionally but also seriously deficient in the average American diet.
Actually, “deficient” is misleading. It isn’t the
nominal content of omega-3s consumed that is deficient as much as the
ratio of omega-3s to omega- 6 EFAs consumed. Simply put, Americans need
more omega-3s and less omega-6s in their diet.
The ruling establishes Daily Value (DV) requirements for both shortchain
and long-chain omega-3 oils and provides criteria by which foods can
be deemed to be “good” or “high, rich or excellent”
sources of omega-3s. This development may be especially opportune for
food product categories hammered by recent low net carb trends if manufacturers
use it to reclaim the nutritional high ground. However, food and nutritional
products manufacturers must now find effective ways of introducing omega-3
EFAs into products without compromising shelf life, taste and texture.
Omega-3 and omega-6 EFAs play at least two key roles in human physiology.
One role is structural; essential lipids serve as critical structural
components in cell membranes and tissues. These roles are recognized
but as of yet poorly delineated. The second role is as precursors for
prostaglandins, whereby omega-3-generated prostaglandins exhibit an
agonist/protagonist relationship with omega-6-generated prostaglandins
to control important physiological functions (e.g., blood clotting).
It is for this reason that the ratio of dietary omega-3 to dietary omega-6
is critical—chronic over-consumption of omega-6s in relation to
omega-3s leads to prostaglandin imbalances that translate into chronic
physiological disorders common in our society. The general consensus
is that there exists about a 2-to-1 imbalance of omega-6s to omega-3s
in the average American diet. The challenge is therefore to increase
omega-3 consumption without concomitantly increasing omega-6s. This
limits naturally available solutions to those offering an excess of
omega-3s to omega-6s, essentially: certain algae, fish, fish oil, flaxseed
oil and wholemilled flaxseed.
As the IOM report affirms, both short-chain (alpha-linolenic acid or
ALA) and long-chain omega-3s (eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA, and docosahexaenoic
acid or DHA) are nutritionally essential. Humans can convert a limited
amount of ALA (between 5 percent and 10 percent) into EPA or DHA. Consequently,
FDA guidelines recognize a higher level of ALA consumption is required
to meet dietary omega-3 requirements.
Conversely, FDA has not recommended caps for ALA consumption as it
has for EPA or DHA in replies to manufacturer inquiries.
Because of their highly unsaturated nature, omega-3s are very susceptible
to oxidation. When oxidized, fish oil smells “fishy” and
flaxseed oil smells “painty”. The challenge is to protect
the oil from oxidizing in the product over the product’s expected
shelf-life and preparation conditions.
Fish oils and flaxseed oil can be pre-emulsified, admixed with antioxidant
blends or mixed into liposome suspensions to both protect the oils and
to ensure their easy incorporation and dispersion into fluids. For supplement
or low-moisture applications, they can be encapsulated. However, all
these steps are cost-enhancing and applications-limited. From this perspective,
whole-milled flaxseed flour (20 percent ALA omega-3) offers distinct
advantages in that it provides a relatively economical, whole-food source
material naturally encapsulated within its own natural, antioxidantrich
grain matrix. Pleasant tasting, it incorporates directly into supplements,
nutritional products and foods. Properly milled and handled to protect
its natural antioxidant barrier, it stores indefinitely under ambient
conditions. Using FDA’s omega-3 Nutrient Content claim guidelines,
only 1.5 g of whole-milled flaxseed per serving is required to qualify
a product as a “high, rich or excellent” source of omega-3
oils. This includes liquids: fine-milled to a 30-mesh or 40-mesh granulation,
whole-milled flaxseed forms soft-textured suspensions in juices, soy
milk or other beverages that undergo homogenization and pasteurization
at levels that will qualify such beverages as rich sources of omega-3s.
In sum, new FDA Nutrient Content claims have opened new vistas of nutritional
product opportunities to foods and nutritional products manufacturers.
Between fish oils, flaxseed oil and whole-milled flaxseed powders, manufacturers
enjoy many options to take full advantage of this opportunity to the
benefit of public health and well-being.